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Biochemistry of food, nutrition, and metabolic diseases - unit 1: Biochemistry of food, and nutrition
Code: K050ZA
Teacher:  Stefania Iametti
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4,5
Practices in classroom: 0,5
Basic aims:  Providing biochemical knowledge suitable for understanding the nutritional properties of food, with a particular focus on the starting materials and on food processing. Acquiring a biochemical view of food allergy and intolerance. Developing a modern vision of nutritional biochemistry trough understanding the following topics: modulation of metabolism ; control and modulation of enzymes; fundamentals of signal transduction; modulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. On these basis, the biochemical aspects of specific nutritional and bioactive compounds, their direct anabolic/catabolic functions, and their role in activation of specific metabolic pathway will be discussed.
Understand the biochemical aspects related with the main metabolic diseases that may induce the development of chronic diseases.
Acquired skills:  Understand the role of food components in modulating biochemical process and metabolic events within cells - Familiarize with the biochemical aspects of food preparation and on their relationships to consumers' wellness - Ability to evaluate of the various types of information provided by the methodological approaches used in this field.
Course contents:  1) Biochemical basis of nutritional properties: from starting material to food. Controlled denaturation of protein in food processing, and process markers; controlled proteolysis and other enzymatic food treatments; formation and disappearance of food-derived bioactive compounds; food processing and micronutrient biochemistry; molecular quality markers: protein and genetic markers
2) Food intolerance and food allergies -Food allergens: molecular determinants of allergy; biochemical fundamentals of immune response antigen/antibody recognition and its meaning for food safety; strategy for the production and control of hypo-allergic foods.
3) A modern vision of nutritional biochemistry: basis of metabolism modulation and enzymatic activities; fundamentals of signal transduction; nutrients and control of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels; biochemical aspects of the function of specific nutrient and of bioactive compounds ; direct anabolic and catabolic functions, activation of specific metabolic pathways: nutrigenomics; molecular mechanism of oxidative damage at cellular level and role of food components in its prevention.
4) Role of micro-nutrients and of food-derived components in the modulation of inflammatory events and in cellular degeneration; metabolism of food mycotoxins and food xenobiotics
5) A biochemical vision of basic nutrition concepts: basal metabolism and digestive processes
6) molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways related to major dismetabolic diseases/conditions: dyslipidemia, phenylketonuria, G6 PDH deficiency and hemolytic diseases; atherogenesis; hypo- and hypervitaminosis; alcohol consumption
Program:  - Physical denaturation of protein in food processing. Formation and disappearance of food biological active compounds and process markers
- Limited proteolysis: enzymatic treatments of food, peptide and protein modification formation.
- Molecular marker of quality: protein and genetic markers.
- Food and micro-nutrient biochemistry
- Food-derived xenobiotics and their metabolism
- Main food toxins and their mechanism
- Control of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level; nutrigenomics
- Fundamental of signal transduction: messengers, receptors, second messengers and their mode of action
- Biochemical aspects of the function of specific nutrients and bioactive compounds: anabolic and catabolic functions
- Biochemical aspects of the function of specific food compounds/contaminants in food: role in the cellular metabolism
- Food allergens: molecular determinants of allergenicity; biochemical basis of the allergenic response
- Antigen/antibody recognition and its relevance to food safety
- Food intolerance
- Strategy for the production and control of hypo-allergenic and improved-tolerance foods
- Molecular mechanism of oxidative stress at cellular level
- Role of specific food compounds in protection against oxidative stress
Prerequisites:  Knowledge of the structure and of the physical/chemical properties of simple chemical systems. Knowledge of the macrostructural features of biological material.
Preparatory instructions:  none
Learning materials:  Slides from classroom presentations (on the UNIMI/Ariel platform)
Books: Campbell/Farrel, Biochimica, EdiSES; Arienti, Basi Molecolari della Nutrizione, Piccin; Avigliano/Rossi, Biochemical Aspects of Human Nutrition, Transworld Research Network; Harper Biochimica, McGraw-Hill.
Other info:  Written exam with both open questions and multiple choice questions
Program of Biochemistry of food, nutrition, and metabolic diseases - unit 1: Biochemistry of food, and nutrition (pdf version)
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