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Nutrition-related diseases: phathophysiology
Code: K050UA
Teacher:  Gaetano Cairo
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 6
Basic aims:  Info not available
Acquired skills:  Info not available
Course contents:  Aim of general PATHOLOGY is to study: a) the causes leading to the alterations of the structures and functions (aetiology); b) the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to damage; c) the reactive processes activated by the organism in response to pathological insults in order to re-establish a balanced condition.
These aspect will be examined at different levels, from the single cell to the whole organism.
The interactions between intrinsic causal effectors associated to the individual genetic background and acquired environmental factors will be also examined, with special attention to the role of nutrition. Among the major issues: cell damage, the inflammatory response, neoplastic transformation. The second part will deal with typical issues of PHYSIOPATHOLOGY, in particular multifactorial diseases like anemia, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, in which nutrition plays an important role.
Program:  BASIS OF GENERAL PATHOLOGY General aetiology 1. Pathogenetic mechanisms. Interaction between intrinsic causal factors (elements of genetics) and acquired effectors. 2. Cell damage and death; necrosis and apoptosis in physiological and pathological processes: the mechanisms. 3. Oxidative stress and related pathologic conditions (antioxidant defenses, vitamines). Inflammation 1. Inflammatory agents, vascular events, cells of the inflammatory process. 2. Mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and phagocytosis. 3. Chemical mediators which coordinate the various phases of inflammation. Oncology 1. Distinction between non neoplastic and neoplastic growth. 2. Mutations and cancer. 3. Lack of control of the cell cycle in tumors: role of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. 4. Neoplastic progression, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. 5. Aetiology of tumors.
PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF MULTIFACTORIAL DISEASES 1. Blood physiopathology: anemia (erythropoiesis- iron and pholates deficiency). 2. Obesity (control of energy homeostasis and body weight-signals of hunger and satiety). 3. Diabetes (classifications- glycemic control- insulin resistance- metabolic alterations - long term complications ). 4. Steatosis (alcoholic and non alcoholic). 5. Hypertension (regulation of blood pression-consequences). 6. Atherosclerosis (risk factors-pathogenesis-consequences). 7. Tumors [interaction between genetic background and environment (food as environmental factor)-cancerogens in the diet-chemoprevention]. 8. Allergies and intollerances: molecules and cells involved-allergens (nature and identification)-anaphylactic shock.9. Gout (purine metabolism-pathogenesis of hyperuricemia). 10. Physiopathological aspect of nutrition in pregnancy.
GENETICS. Nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic will be also examined, by analysing the role of diet as an environmental mechanism of interaction with the genome and regulator of gene expression
Prerequisites:  Basic knowledge of cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, anatomy and histology is required, as usually acquired during first level (three years) degrees
Preparatory instructions:  Physiology and human physiology. Food biochemistry.
Learning materials:  Textbooks: G.M. Pontieri “Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia Generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie.” (Piccin Ed.)
G Cairo, S Recalcati, L Tacchini "Patologia" (serie Quick Review EdiSES)
Other material will be suggested during classes and slides will be available in ARIEL
Other info:  Oral exam
Program of Nutrition-related diseases: phathophysiology (pdf version)
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