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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Animal husbandry systems: animal production, environment, and food of animal origin. Part 1
Code: G5807C
Teacher:  Gianni Matteo Crovetto
Year: 
Term: 
CFU: 
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 3
Other: 1
Basic aims:  First aim of the course is to provide information and
knowledge on the influence of animal husbandry on the
territory and the environment, underlying the strong
relationships with other areas such as pedology,
agronomy, economy. Several practical examples of the
positive or negative influence of animal production on
the environment in different situations (intensive, semi-
extensive, extensive systems) will help the student to
learn, but also to develop a critical approach in the
evaluation process. This will be essential when and if
he/she will be implicated in a private or public process
of "decision/management". Second aim of the course is
to analyze different aspects of the quality of food of
animal origin and to study the influence of husbandry
systems on quality of animal products.
Acquired skills:  After passing the exam, the student will have acquired
knowledge and expertise in terms of methodological
and executive approach as far as animal production
and environment are concerned. Particularly, he/she
will have a more clear and holistic view of the issue
(animal husbandry and the environment) and will be
able to face it, together with experts of the different
areas involved. In addition the student will have
acquired tools and methodologies to assess and
manage quality issues in the production of animal
derived food at farm level, for technical or managerial
activities with farms, food industries, retails.
Course contents:  Summary of the programme of the teaching unit 1:
Animal production and the environment.

Overview of the different livestock production systems
in Italy and in the world, with assets and critical points.
E.U. Nitrate Directive and its consequences in Italy.
Phosphorus excretion. Greenhouse gases (GHG)
emissions and feeding and managing techniques able
to reduce their impact. Animal husbandry in the
mountain and its effects on the environment. Animal
production and use of water. Additive and heavy
metals residues. Animal husbandry and biodiversity.
Program:  Programme of the teaching unit 1:
Animal production and the environment

Overview of the different livestock production systems in
Italy and in the world, with their assets and critical points.
Among the assets: the load of organic matter to the soil
with an increased soil fertility, and, depending on the type
of livestock system, the contribution to maintain a
various, diversified environment, with open space and
vegetable and animal biodiversity. Among the critical
aspects: the risk of overgrazing, an excessive nitrogen
and phosphorus excretion if the livestock density is too
high, with a consequent nitrate leaching in groundwater
and ammonia emission from the slurries to the air. E.U.
Nitrate Directive and its practical consequences on animal
production in Italy and particularly in Lombardy region will
be thoroughly analysed. Phosphorus excretion by animals
and the associated environmental risks will be
investigated, as well as greenhouse gases (GHG)
emissions and feeding and managing techniques able to
reduce their impact. Animal husbandry in the mountain
and its effects on the environment will be considered also
(to preserve landscape, biodiversity and prevent
landslides) as well as animal production and the use of
water. Additive and heavy metals residues from animal
feeding and management will be analysed. Examples of
animal husbandry techniques and biodiversity will be
given. Finally diets and feeding systems specially focused
on minimize the environmental impact of both dairy and
beef cattle and pigs will be presented and discussed.
Prerequisites:  Teaching unit 1: Animal production and the environment

Knowledge of the Organic chemistry, of the Soil
chemistry, of the Animal nutrition and feeding, of the
animal husbandry techniques, and of the genetic
improvement in animal production.
Preparatory instructions:  Teaching unit 1: Animal production and the environment

The student must have passed the base examinations on
Animal production (Anatomy and physiology, Genetics,
Nutrition and feeding, Management/rearing techniques) of
the first 3 years of the university degree.
Learning materials:  Learning material of the teaching unit 1:
Animal production and the environment

Minutes of the lessons
Scientific papers, divulgative articles and texts (in Italian
and English) available in ARIEL
Other info:  Teaching unit 1: Animal production and the environment

Oral examination

ATTENTION: the examination is unique for the two
teaching units/parts of the course. It must be given
simultaneously with the two teachers ((Crovetto and
Sandrucci) and both parts of the examination have to be
passed. If one part is not passed, the whole examination
(two parts) must be given again.
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Program of Animal husbandry systems: animal production, environment, and food of animal origin. Part 1 (pdf version)
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