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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Organic chemistry
Code: G300A-
Teacher:  Sabrina Dallavalle
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 5
Practices in laboratory:  1
Basic aims:  This course will supply the students with the rudiments for theoretical and experimental aspects of organic chemistry, with particular emphasis to the most important classes of organic compounds in agrifood sector.
Acquired skills:  Understanding of formulas of organic compounds; knowledge of principal functional groups; properties, reactivity and environmental importance of organic molecules; fundamental procedures for the manipulation of organic compounds.
Course contents:  Description of structure, physical-chemical properties, obtaining methods and reactivity for the principal classes of organic compounds. Particular attention will be given to organic compounds in agrifood matrix. Organic chemistry laboratory: fundamental procedures for purification, separation and identification of organic substances.
Program:  The aim of the course is to supply the fundamental knowledge on the structure and reactivity of organic compounds. Particular attention will be given to the relationship between chemical formula, three-dimensional structure and chemical-physical properties (solubility, boiling point, color etc.) of organic molecules. The student will analyse the main transformations of organic compounds (acid-base reactions, ox-red, hydrolysis, etc.) necessary to understand the behaviour of the natural components of food. Theme n°1. The organic compounds: structure, isomerism, compact formula, functional groups. Nomenclature of organic compounds. Alkanes: structure, isomerism, chemical-physical proprieties, combustion reaction. Conformational analysis of alkanes and cycloalkanes, geometric isomerism in the disubstituted cycloalkanes. Alkenes: structure, chemical-physical properties, geometric isomerism. Polyenes, terpenes (short account). Electophilic adddition reactions of alkenes. Mechanism. Reactions of oxidation. Reactions of polymerization, properties and applications of polymers. Benzene and aromatic compounds: structure, nomenclature. Theme n°2 . Alcohols: structure, properties, natural sources and importance in food chemistry, acidity, oxidation to carbonilic compounds. Alkyl halides of hydrocarbons: structure, properties, reactivity with nucleofilic reagents, short account to the ecological problems (pesticides, halogenated compounds, dioxins, PCB). Phenols: structure, acidity; poliphenols, flavonoids, tannins. Use of poliphenols as anti-oxidants in food. Theme n°3 . Chirality and optical activity, absolute and relative configuration. Enantiomers, diasteroisomers and racemic mixtures. Relationship between biological proprieties and optical active compounds. Aldehydes and ketones: structure, proprieties, redox and nucleophic addition reactions. Semiacetals, acetals and hydrated derivative of aldehydes and ketones. Some typical carbonyl addition reactions of nitrogen nucleophilic reagent. Theme n°4 . Carbohydrates: mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides: structure and Fischer projections, stereochemistry. Cyclic structure and mutarotation. Disaccharides and polysaccharides: proprieties and importance in biological system. Theme n°5 . Carboxylic acids: structure, proprieties and acidity. Funcional derivatives of carboxilyc acids: acid halides, esters, amides. Reactions of nucleophilic displacements: esterification and hydrolysis of esters. Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerids, phospholipids. Natural and synthetic soaps and tensioactives. Steroids and liposoluble vitamins. Amines: structure, proprieties, basicity. Natural nitrogen containing compounds (alkaloids). Aminoacids and peptides: structure, acid-base properties, PI. Types of biologically important aminoacids. Structure of DNA (short account). Practices: Practices in laboratory: fundamental techniques for identification, separation and purification of organic compounds. Distillation, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, extraction from aqueous solutions at different pH. Exercises on arguments of the course.
Prerequisites:  Basic knowledges of chemistry and mathematics
Preparatory instructions:  general and inorganic chemistry
Learning materials:  Suggested Books : B.Botta : Chimica Organica Essenziale, Edi-ermes, W. H Brown. Introduzione alla Chimica Organica 2° edizione (EdiSes) R. Hart, Chimica Organica (Zanichelli).
All the slides presented during the course are available on "Ariel"
Other info:  The exam consists in a written test at the end of the course. All the arguments treated, included the practical experiments, will be object of the exam.
Laboratory attendance is subordinated to the participation to a lesson about safety in chemistry laboratories.
Program of Organic chemistry (pdf version)
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