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Elements of Chemistry and Physical Chemistry - unit 1
Code: G290PA
Teacher:  Francesco Enzo Molinari
Term:  1-2 
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 3
Basic aims:  Aim of the course is the introduction to the study of chemical and technological subjects. As the main target, the student has to realize that the progress of his/her studies implies a systematic extension of the basic elements of chemistry and physical chemistry of the present course which is therefore propedeutical to all the other courses related the chemical and technological subjects to be treated for the degree in Food Science and Technology.
Acquired skills:  Basic knowledge about chemical elements, atom and molecule. Use of the Period Table of Elements. Fundaments of the stoichiometric balances and chemical equivalence. The concentration. Definition and use of density. Elements of inorganic chemistry: properties of compounds of the first 20 elements of the Periodic Table. Some information about the properties and compounds of the transition elements. Energy balance (First principle of Thermodynamics). Heat capacity. Stability of the systems (Second principle of Thermodynamics). Phase equilibrium. Chemical equilibrium. Phenomenological kinetics: reaction rate, reaction order, dependence of the reaction rate on temperature. The student has to become aware that knowledge of any compound or mixture of compounds necessarily requires the assessment of the relevant chemical nature and the realization of the physical laws that govern interactions between molecules and allow the characterization of the macroscopic physical properties of matter.
Course contents:  The course will be a set of information expressible in laws. The first part of the course lays the foundation for elementary face and overcome two fundamental aspects of General Chemistry that are the theory of chemical bond and chemical thermodynamics. The second part of the course deals with the study of chemical reactions and their feasibility. Each topic is supplemented with a number of exercises that illustrate the validity of the concepts presented. The third part will cover the chemistry of the elements with particular attention to those that are essential to plant and animal life. At the end the student will acquire a critical attitude towards the matter that will put you in a position to deal with: i) topics not covered in class ii) other vocational courses in chemical character.
Program:  ntroduction: basic concepts. - The measures and the metric system-Atoms, molecules, and ions. - The states of matter, atomic theory, atomic structure, periodic table - Stoichiometry. - Law of conservation of mass, chemical equations-energy relations: the first law of thermodynamics. - The thermodynamic state function entalpia.-atomic structures of atoms: fundamental concepts, uncertainty principle; representation of the orbitals (orbitals s, p, and d). Structure-mail: periodicity. - Orbitals in atoms and electronic multi-periodic properties of chemical bonds. - Symbols and Lewis octet rule, ionic bond, covalent bond-structure of molecules and molecular orbitals, VB and MO theory - Theory of repulsion between electron pairs in the valence layer (VSEPR model) hybrid orbitals and shape of the molecules. Gas. - Ownership of the gas pressure, gas laws. Liquids, solids and intermolecular forces. - Phase equilibria; intermolecular attractive forces, hydrogen bonding. Solutions. - Ways of expressing concentration, electrolyte solutions, colligative properties. Chemical equilibrium. - Law of mass action and equilibrium constant (unit of measurement of concentrations and expression of the equilibrium constant); heterogeneous equilibria, use of the equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle. Equilibria in aqueous solutions, acids and bases. - Water; theory of acids and bases according to: a) Arrhenius, b) Broensted-Lowry c) Lewis; pH scale, strong acids and bases, weak acids. Chemical thermodynamics. - Enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs energy. Electrochemistry. - Redox reactions, oxidation-reduction potential and their application. Descriptive inorganic chemistry. - Periodic Table: blocks s, p, d, f. Groups and periods. Changes in the properties along the periodic groups and periods ..
Program Stoichiometric Calculations. Significance of the measures. Chemical formulas. Reports in moles and mass in chemical reactions. Conservation of mass. Balancing chemical equations. The equation of state of an ideal gas. Solutions. Ways to express the composition. Colligative properties. The chemical balance. Equilibrium in the gas phase: Kp, Kc and their use. Equilibria in homogeneous aqueous solution. Neutral solutions, acids and bases. pH and pOH calculations. Electrochemistry: Electrode potentials of reduction and their application.
Prerequisites:  Info not available
Preparatory instructions:  Info not available
Learning materials:  Fondamenti di chimica generale, seconda edizione" di Raymond Chang e Kenneth Goldsby (MacGraw and Hill)
Other info:  Info not available
Program of Elements of Chemistry and Physical Chemistry - unit 1 (pdf version)
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