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Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Università degli Studi di Milano
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Fundamentals of animal biology and yield
Code: G2907D
Teacher:  Alberto Tamburini
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4,5
Practices in classroom: 0,5
Basic aims:  The course is aimed to giving to the Food Science and Technology
student the basic knowledge of Plant and Animal Biology
necessary for the understanding of the physiological and
morphological characteristics of plant and animal products used
for human nutrition, in order to evaluate their quality
characteristics also from a technological point of view.
Acquired skills:  Knowledge of structure, localization and function of the different
molecules present in plants and of the biological traits of plant
cells, tissues and organs as related to their use as foods.
Understanding of the biological processes of seed and fruit
development. Knowledge of the main characteristics of milk and
meat, and of the biological traits of animal cells, tissues and
organs as related to their use as foods or in food production.
Understanding of the quality interactions between productive
factors in farm (management, feeding and genetics) and quality
results in milk and meat.
Course contents:  Animal Biology: Biological molecules. The animal cell and its
food characteristics. Digestive and lactation physiology. Farm
Animal Feeding: Feeds for ruminants and non ruminants:
forages and concentrates. Animal feeding and quality of milk or
meat (milk fat and fiber, milk protein and feed energy,
mycotoxins, BSE, organic milk and meat). Milk Production:
management, feeding and genetics actions in relationship of
quality of milk. Animal genetics and principal dairy breeds.
Farm management and feeding for dairy cows. Milking and milk
quality. Milk Quota and problems of milk production in EU and
the world. Meat Production: carcass evaluation in slaughter.
Principal meat bovine breeds. Management, feeding and
genetics factors influencing meat quality. Economic and
regulation problems of meat production in EU and the world.
Program:  1) ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD a) Animal products (milk, meat, fish, eggs, honey, derivates) and their consumption. b) Rules and regulations of milk and meat production c) Characteristics of milk, cheese production and bovine, swine meat production in UE and in the world. d) PDO “Protected Designation of Origin” and Traceability g) Organic Farm 2) ANIMAL BIOLOGY a) Biological molecules (completion of Plant Biology knowlegdings) b) Animal Cells: tipical stucture and functions trutture tipiche e funzioni della cellula animale (completion of Plant Biology knowlegdings) c) Animal physiology of animal tissues, of digestive systems (ruminants and non-ruminants), of mammary gland 3) MILK PRODUCTION a) Milk composition, nutritive value and milk quality b) Ruminant feeding (intake and digestion characteristics, feeding as forages and concentrates) c) Feeding and milk quality (milk fat and fiber, milk protein and feed energy, mycotoxins) d) Milking techiniques and problems. Hygiene in the farm and milking parloura mungitura. Norme igieniche per la raccolta e i primi trattamenti alla stalla. e) Genetic differents and selection traits. Dairy cow breeds in Italy and in the world. f) Rules and regulations (Milk Quota in EU, milk quality program, Traceability). 4) MEAT PRODUCTION a) Meat composition and nutritive value b) Slaughtering yields and meat physical and sensorial parameters c) Principal bovine breeds for meat . d) Feeding, genetic and management factors in bovine meat production e) Rules and regulations in meat production (slaughtery, BSE, Traceability)
Prerequisites:  The understanding of a few fundamental topics of the
course of “Fundamentals of primary biology and yield”
requires a few basic notions of organic and biological
chemistry, which are thoroughly dealt with in specific
courses scheduled after this one. Though these topics are
supposed to have already been dealt with in the high
school, in order to help the student to overcome possible
difficulties, a few introductory lectures recall these basic
Preparatory instructions:  None
Learning materials:  Notes from the course lectures. The teachers will put at
the student's disposal the slides shown during the lectures
and other texts in the e- learning site (Ariel:

The personal notes can be integrated with the following
textbooks: Modules 1 and 2: Solomon, Berg, Martin: La cellula,
Edises Solomon,
Berg, Martin: La continuità della vita, Edises Solomon,
Berg, Martin: Genetica, Edises Module 2: Giussani, Il latte
di qualità. Edagricole
Other info:  For students attending the course lessons, two written
tests (one at the middle and the other at the end of the
course) are foreseen. Each test, dealing with
approximately half of the programme, will consist in 2
questions to be answered in detail for the plant topics plus 2
questions for the animal topics.
The tests will be repeated in the course of the years; they
will be considered achieved if the student will have
obtained a positive result (18/30) for each test.
Program of Fundamentals of animal biology and yield (pdf version)
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