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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Nutrition, feeding and animal husbandry. Mod 1: Nutrition and feeding
Code: G280NA
Teacher:  Gianni Matteo Crovetto
Year: 
Term: 
CFU: 
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 3
Other: 1
Basic aims:  The first aim of the course is to provide the basic
knowledge on animal nutrition and feeding: the different
alimentary and nutrient principles, the main feed
(forages and concentrates), the requirements of the
animals in production (milk and meat) and the different
practical feeding techniques. The second aim is to provide
both theoretical and applied knowledge about husbandry
techniques of domestic animals and the influence of
animal production systems on quality of animal products,
environmental impact and animal welfare.
Acquired skills:  After passing the exam, the student will have gained
competence on the main feed, of their utilization by the
animals and of the different practical feeding techniques
under the various stages of development, the
physiological phases, and the levels of production.
Moreover he will have acquired basic skills and tools for
technical assessment of different animal production
systems in order to progress to higher levels of study or
to work in a livestock farm as a technician or consultant.
Course contents:  Summary of the programme of the teaching unit 1:
Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Chemical composition and related chemical analyses of
feeds. Summary of the mineral and vitamin nutrition.
Factors affecting feed intake and digestibility. Fibre:
dietetic and nutritive functions in ruminants and
monogastrics. Energy and protein metabolism in
ruminants and monogastrics. Biological analyses of
feeds for the determination of in vivo, in vitro and in
situ digestibility, and the assessment of rumen
fermentability. Main nutrient requirements of cattle
(dairy and beef) and pigs, in the different stages of
growth and physiological phases. Description of the
main feeds (forages and concentrates). Each feed will
be considered for its main chemical and nutritional
characteristics as well as the way of use. Feeding
techniques, with practical examples of diets for dairy
and beef cattle and for pigs. Two farms (one for cattle
and one for pigs) will be visited to verify in the field the
information and the knowledge gained in classroom.
Program:  Programme of the teaching unit 1:
Animal Nutrition and Feeding

The chemical composition (water, minerals, organic
matter, carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogenous compounds)
and the related main chemical analyses of feeds will be
described. Overview of the mineral and vitamin
nutrition. The different factors affecting feed intake and
digestibility will be examined. The role of fibre in
animal nutrition and feeding and its dietetic and
nutritive functions in ruminants and monogastrics will
be carefully analysed. Energy and protein metabolism,
the two pillars in animal nutrition, in ruminants and
monogastrics will be thoroughly explained. Biological
analyses of feeds for the determination of in vivo, in
vitro (Tilley & Terry and Daisy) and in situ (nylon bags)
digestibility, and the assessment of rumen
fermentability (gas production) will be also described,
in the view of showing to the students the importance
of the interactions, beyond the chemical composition of
the feed, between the feed itself and the digestive
system. The main nutrient requirements of cattle (dairy
and beef) and pigs, in the different stages of growth
and physiological phases, will be summarized.
In the second part of the course, the main feed
(forages and concentrates) will be described.
Particularly, among the forages (grass, hays, silages,
stalks and straw) special reference will be made to
those more frequently used: maize silage, Italian
ryegrass, Lucerne, autumn-winter cereals. Among the
concentrates a particular attention will be paid to the
most important cereals, brans, protein meals of
vegetable and animal origin, oilseeds, liquid feeds and
different industrial by-products. Each feed will be
considered for its main chemical and nutritional
characteristics as well as the way of use.
The last part of the course will focus on the feeding
techniques, with practical examples of diets for dairy
(calves, heifers, dry and lactating cows) and beef cattle
(growing and fattening/finishing) and for pigs (piglet,
growing, fattening/finishing, pregnant and lactating
sow). Two farms, one for cattle and one for pigs, will
be visited with the students to verify in the field the
information and the knowledge gained in classroom.
Prerequisites:  Teaching unit 1:
Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Basic knowledge on organic chemistry and on anatomy
and physiology of domestic animals.
Preparatory instructions:  Teaching unit 1:
Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Passing the exams of Organic chemistry and of Anatomy
and physiology of domestic animals, is not compulsory,
but highly advisable.
Learning materials:  Learning material of the teaching unit 1:
Animal Nutrition and Feeding

Minutes of the lessons.
Animal Nutrition, by McDonald, Edwards, Greenhalgh and
Morgan, Longman, 1995.
Other info:  Programme of the teaching unit 1:
Animal Nutrition and Feeding

The examination is made of two parts. First a written
test with 3 questions on different topics. If the test is
positively done, an oral question on one topic will
complete the whole examination. If the oral part is not
successful, also the written test must be repeated.
ATTENTION: the examination must be done together
with that of the unit 2 of the course (Animal
husbandry); the two units make a unique exam; the
two parts cannot be given separately.
DOWNLOAD
Program of Nutrition, feeding and animal husbandry. Mod 1: Nutrition and feeding (pdf version)
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