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General Biology: 2 Animal Biology
Code: G271D-
Teacher:  Giorgio Scari'
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 6
Basic aims:  The aim of the teaching is to furnish a basic knowledge of zoological principles, to allow the comprehension of the more advanced teachings in the following years. Information will be given about the morpho-functional aspects of the most important phyla in the animal kingdom, with emphasis about phyla of agriculture interest as Anellida, Mollusca, Arthropoda and Chordata (Vertebrates), in addition elements about the small phyla will be furnished, to have a comprehensive picture of the matter, with focus on different basic structure (“Bauplane”) of animal organisms. The student will gain a comprehensive vision of Zoological disciplines, in the framework of the evolutionary theory , together the basic ideas about the different schools concerning the classification of the animal kingdom. A special attention will be given to the ecosystem approach, in the framework of the development of a sustainable agriculture. A relevant objective of the lessons will be to furnish materials for a correct management of agriculture systems, concerning production and protection, with this purpose the basic knowledge about the relations between animals and the other living creatures (plants, bacteria) will be furnished (symbiosis, competition, parasitism, predation).
Acquired skills:  Principles of animal biology, the theory and practice of animal classification and identification.
Course contents:  This program addresses three general questions about
animals: 1) How do they work (form, function, behavior,
physiology, ecology)? 2) How do they develop (gene
expression, cell biology, embryology morphogenesis)?
and 3) How do they evolve (genetics, diversity,
Program:  Animal Cells
The nucleus and the nucleolus. Chromatin organization.
Genetic information and its expression: replication, transcript, translation, genetic code
Cytoplasm: the relationship between the structure and function of the Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus.
Mitocondris and cellular oxidations.
Cellular cycle and the mitosis.
General morphofunctional characteristics and anatomical location of the epithelial covering and glandular tissues, support connectives and trophics, skeletal, cardiac, smooth and nervous muscle.

Organization of the animals and human body, anatomical position, section plans, corporal cavities. Locomotor apparatus: Skeleton and its functions; general notions articular systems classification; general notions of the skeletal muscles.
Integumentary apparatus: skin and attached cutaneous.
Cardiovascular apparatus: general characteristics of blood and lymphatic circulation heart structure and conformation, pericardium, arteries, veins, capillaries land ymphoide organs.
Digestive apparatus: organization of the food channel anatomy.
Urinary apparatus: kidneys organization and microscopic anatomy, urinary pathways organizations.
Genital apparatus: organization and anatomy of the gonads and the masculine and female genital pathways gametogenesis.
Endocrine system. Morphofuncional characteristic of endocrine glands
Nervous system: general organization of the CNS; general notions on nerves; brainstem and cranial nerves encefalici; cerebellum; diencephalon and cerebrum.
Survey of physiological systems that regulate levels of gases, food, energy, temperature, water, and ions. Examples from invertebrates and vertebrates
Animal development from fertilization through birth.
The functional anatomy and life cycles of the major invertebrate taxa are emphasized.
A comparative survey of vertebrates, focusing on their morphology, classification, and phylogeny.
Prerequisites:  Cell biology, chemistry and physics (basic knowledge acquired in secondary school) are prerequisite to all Biology courses
Preparatory instructions:  Plant biology
Learning materials:  Biologia vol 3 e 5 Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum
Zanichelli ed

Zoologia Parte generale
Zoologia Parte Sistematica
De Bernardi et al.
Idelson Gnocchi

Evoluzione e diversitā della vita
Raven & Johnson
Mason Losos Songer

Russell, Wolfe et al.
Other info:  oral proof; in a first step it will be established if the student has acquired the fundamental notions about animal biology, thereafter a deeper examination about the reception of the concepts illustrated during the teacher's lesson s will be ascertained
The slides are downloadable in ARIEL UNIMI
Program of General Biology: 2 Animal Biology (pdf version)
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