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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Oenology 2 - unit 1: Wine technologies and processes
Code: G250YA
Teacher:  Antonio Giovanni Tirelli
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 6
Basic aims:  Unit 1: The course is designed to provide students with basic
theoretical concepts in the proper management of winemaking.
Concepts learned in preparatory courses will be largely taken
up and enriched with new information and aimed at learning
the principles of winemaking. The student will analyze the
stages involved in the production of red and white wines.
Unit 2: To provide the most suitable tools in order to apply
sensory methods and to face and solve business problems such
as wine shelf life, the comparison of new products with similar
ones already on the market, the verification of the compliance
to sensory specifications and the management of wine quality
and safety within the wine production chain.
Acquired skills:  Unit 1: The knowledge gained will enable the graduate to work
in Viticulture and Enology at both operational and management
in the cellars of production, interacting both with growers and
with those involved in the commercialization and marketing.
The student will be able to conduct autonomously a rational
process of managing the winemaking practices of crushing,
control and correction of the musts and their sulfidation. It will
be able to prepare the yeast for fermentation and manage the
process of fermentation. It will know how to prepare the
malolactic process and the phases of aging in steel and wood.
It will be able to perform correct practices of microbial
stabilization and packaging consistent with the type of wine.
Unit 2: A suitable knowledge is supplied to perform a sensory
session, to plan and manage a sensory laboratory, to analyse
sensory data and to communicate with all company.
Course contents:  Red wine making and the special macerations. Special wines. Wine
stabilization and packaging processes.
Program:  Maceration in red winemaking and its handling.
Fundamentals of phenols chemistry and their application to red
wine evolution. The role of grape and seeds in maceration.
Special macerations: Termovinification, Flash-detente and cold
skin maceration. Copigmentation.
Racking and wine from pomace pressing.
Malolactic activity (MLF) and its management in winery. Role of
MLF on wine properties. Effects of MLF on wine, role of
temperature, pH, acids, and alcohol content. Methods of
Correction of acidity.
Principles and tools of wine clarification: interaction between wine
constituents and adjutants.
Tartaric stabilizaztion and it management. Adjutants in tartaric
Wood barrel and their role in winemaking. Barrel making and
effect on wine properties. The handling of barreled wine.
Technology of special winemaking techniques: sparkling wines,
passito wines, botritized wines.
Wine filtration principles and applications.
Syntetic and cork stoppers. In-bottle packaging: the bottling
machines and their managing. Packaging in alternative materials:
PET, multilayer, bag.in-box.
Prerequisites:  To know the issues concerning ripening, harvesting and delivery of
grape. To know the yeast and bacteria behaviours in grape must
as well as the oenological tools needed to manage them. To know
the Saccharomyces' fermentative metabolism and it needs to
achieve an effective winemaking. To know the white winemaking
Preparatory instructions:  Oenology 1
Learning materials:  Power point presentations shown during the class
Oenology handbook. Vol 1 and 2. Ribereau-Gayon et al.
Other info:  Calculation test immediately followed by oral discussion
Program of Oenology 2 - unit 1: Wine technologies and processes (pdf version)
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