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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Code: G250X-
Teacher:  Simone Domenico Guglielmetti
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 5
Practices in laboratory:  1
Basic aims:  To provide basic knowledge on microbial world, mandatory to
properly study following microbiology-related courses. Specific
attention will be given to agro-food bacteria and microorganisms
involved in carbon and nitrogen cycles in soil.
Acquired skills:  Knowledge of morphology and biochemical structure of bacteria
and viruses; methodologies of isolation and identification (by
classic and molecular methods) of specific bacteria; knowledge of
microbial energetic metabolism; comprehension of the principles
supporting ecological adaptation, selection and genetic variability
of bacteria.
Course contents:  Classification and taxonomy of living organisms. The prokaryotic
cell. Optical microscopy. Outer structures of bacteria (pili, flagella,
cilia, capsules). Bacterial cell wall structure. Bacterial endospores.
Cell membrane and membrane transport. Bacterial growth curve.
The concept of sterility, microbial isolation and selection. Microbial
culture techniques. Methods of microbial count. Microbial cell
energetic metabolism. The fungi kingdom. Viruses. Genetic
variability and natural recombination in bacteria. The polymerase
chain reaction (PCR). Genetic identification of bacteria.
Program:  Introduction to microbiology: living organisms classification;
microscopy. Gram test and bacterial cell wall structure. Outer cell
elements: capsules, falgelli, cilia, pili. Bacterial endospore. Cell
membrane and membrane transport. Microbial growth: nutritional
needs, energetic needs, environmental factors (oxygen, osmotic
pressure, water activity). Bacterial reproduction: bacterial growth
curve. Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduction. Microbial culture
media. The concept of sterility. Counting techniques in
microbiology: in direct and direct measurments (total and living
counting). Microbial cell metabolism (ATP and its synthesis, electron
free transporters, the catabolic processes of respiration and
fermentation). Different microbial fermentations of bacteria. Lactic
acid bacteria and their metabolism. Acetic acid bacteria and their
metabolism. Basic concepts on anabolism. Soil bacteria and
rhizosphere (rhizobia, nitrogen fixation, and mycorrhizae). Fungi
kingdom (classification based of asexual and sexual reproduction;
filamentous fungi; mushrooms). Principles of microbial genetics:
the central dogma of biology. Transcriptional regulation. Mutations.
Viruses. Plasmids. Genetic recombination in bacteria
(transformation, conjugation and transduction). The polymerase
chain reaction (PCR). Genetic identification of bacteria (the concept
of species in bacteria; 16S rRNA gene; DNA-DNA homology).
Prerequisites:  Biology, Organic chemistry
Preparatory instructions:  Biology, Organic chemistry
Learning materials:  In Ariel
Other info:  During exam sessions: written examination
Outside exam session periods (only for out students): oral
Program of Microbiology (pdf version)
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