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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Enological and fermentation Chemistry
Code: G250W-
Teacher:  Francesco Enzo Molinari
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 5,5
Practices in classroom: 0,5
Basic aims:  Students will learn the basic chemistry necessary to understand: - The molecules occurring in the must/grape and their evolution during the winemaking processes - Fermentation carried out by yeasts and by lactic acid bacteria - The contribution of wood to the characteristics of wine - The chemical impact of the main additives used in wine making.
Acquired skills:  The student will be able to qualitatively assess the effects of different vinification techniques on final composition of wine, including the appropriate use of additives to the must/wine by microbiological hazards and chemical-physical properties.
Course contents: 
Program:  Organic chemistry and wine molecules:
- Alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in wine chemistry
- Carboxylic acids and their derivatives in wine chemistry
- Sugars
- Amines
Grape composition
From grape to wine: chemical and enzymatic transformations
Tartaric and malic acids: role, features and calculation of dissociation depending on the pH
Tartaric precipitation, features and methods of stabilization
Other acids in wine
Phenol derivatives:
- General properties
- Phenolic acids
- Flavonoids
- Anthocyanins e anthocyanidins, structures e reactivity
- Tannins, structures e reactivity
Chemistry of yeast fermentation:
- Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
- Ethanol fermentation
- Glycerol fermentation
- Succinic acid formation
- Formation of higher alcohols and their acetate esters
- Formation of acetic acid by yeasts
- Malo-alcoholic fermentation
- Compounds produced by spoiling yeasts
Chemistry of bacteria fermentation in wine:
- Malo-lactic fermentation
- Acetic acid bacteria
- Sulphur dioxide in wine
Inorganic salts and “casse” phenomena
Organic nitrogen derivatives and protein casse
Varietal flavours
Prerequisites:  Basic knowledge of general, inorganic and organic chemistry
Preparatory instructions:  Organic chemistry
Learning materials:  Lecture notes (ARIEL)
Trattato di Enologia II
P. Ribereau-Gayon, Y. Glories, A. Maujean e D. Dubourdieu
Edagricole (2003)
Other info:  Written test
Program of Enological and fermentation Chemistry (pdf version)
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