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Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Università degli Studi di Milano
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Grapevine protection mod. 1: Zoology
Code: G2502A
Teacher:  Ivo Ercole Rigamonti
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4
Practices in classroom: 0,5
Practices in laboratory:  0,25
Other: 0,25
Basic aims:  Unit 1: The course aims to teach how to manage animal pests according to the most recent pest management strategies, that rely on the most environmental friendly techniques, to minimize undesired side effects and optimize the response of the vineyard agroecosystem to the attacks of potentially harmful organisms.
Unit 2: The course provides the students with the basic knowledge on the biology of plant pathogens (fungi, bacteria, virus and phytoplasms), on the diagnostic techniques, on the epidemiology of the main grapevine diseases and on the criteria and tools for an integrated disease control.
Acquired skills:  Unit 1: After completing this course the student should have acquired the ability to i) recognize the animal pests of vine, ii) assess the extent of any yield loss, iii) choose and apply the best pest management options.
Unit 2: Knowledge on the main grapevine pathogens and on the epidemiology of the most frequent diseases, skill required to diagnose the most common grapevine disease and to manage the disease control in different environments.
Course contents:  The program includes three steps: The first deals with the biology and ecology of animal organisms of the vineyard agroecosystem. The main topics are morphology, anatomy and physiology, behavior and relationships with other organisms. The second deals with the concepts of i) yield loss generation, with particular attention to the economic thresholds, and ii) pest management strategies. Finally the main pest species of the vine crop are dealt with. Detailed informations on their morphology, biological cycle, harmfulness and management techniques are provided. In addition to classroom teaching, the course includes practical exercises both in the laboratory and in the vineyard.
Program:  INTRODUCTION - The agricultural zoology PART I General characteristics of animal pests - Insects: general characteristics; systematic; morphology; anatomy; development and behavior; relationships with humans and other organisms. - Mites: general characteristics; systematic; morphology; anatomy; development and behavior; relationships with humans and other organisms. - Nematodes: general characteristics; systematic; basic notions on morphology, anatomy, development and behavior, relationships with humans and other organisms. PEST MANAGEMENT - Introductory concepts: generality; economic damage; pest monitoring: traps, sampling; side effects. - Pest management: PM strategies, integrated production; control techniques (biological, mechanical, agronomic, physical, chemical). - Pesticides: general information about active ingredients and products, generalities on methods of applications. PESTS - The vineyard agroecosystem - Key pests: Scaphoideus titanus, Lobesia botrana, Eupoecilia ambiguella; - Secondary species: Frankliniella occidentalis, Empoasca vitis, Jacobiasca lybica, Zygina rhamni, Argyrotaenia pulchellana, Panonychus ulmi, Eotetranychus carpini, Tetranychus urticae. - Minor pests: thrips (Drepanothrips reuteri), leafhoppers and planthoppers (Metcalfa pruinosa, Stictocephala bisonia), Viteus vitifolii, scale insects (Pulvinaria spp., Planococcus spp., ecc.), Lepidoptera (armyworms, Theresimima ampelophaga, Hyphantria cunea, Peribatodes rhomboidaria, Sparganothis pilleriana), Coleoptera (Altica ampelophaga, Anomala spp., Vesperus spp., Otiorhynchus spp), Diptera (Janetiella oenophila), eriophyid mites, nematodes.
Prerequisites:  A good knowledge of plant and animal biology and a basic comprehension of ecology is desirable.
Preparatory instructions:  none
Learning materials:  Lecture slides and notes
E. Tremblay – Entomologia applicata Vol. 1– Liguori editore
A. Lucchi - Note di Entomologia viticola - Pisa University Press
AA.VV. – Manuale di Zoologia agraria – Antonio Delfino Editore
S. Zangheri, G. Pellizzari Scaltriti – Parassitologia animale dei vegetali - Cluep
Other info:  the final exam is an oral examination. It consists of an interview on the topics included in the program. Its aim is to verify the acquisition of educational goals and competences. Two questions will be asked, the first on one of the following topics: general characteristics of insects, mites and nematodes, pest management strategies, pesticides. The subject of the second question will be the morphology, life cycle, harmfulness and management of vine pests.
Program of Grapevine protection mod. 1: Zoology (pdf version)
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