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General Biology; unit 2: Animal Biology
Code: G240TB
Teacher:  Giorgio Scari'
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 3,5
Practices in laboratory:  0,5
Basic aims:  Aims:
to show how the form, function and behaviour of animals become adapted to the environment through evolution;
to prepare students for the courses that require knowledge of animal biology at the systems and organismal levels.
Acquired skills:  At the end of the course students should:
have developed knowledge of the major ideas in cell biology, animal biology and developmental biology;

be able to assess the scope of animal biology and be able to select particular areas for further study;
Course contents:  This program addresses three general questions about animals: 1) How do they work (form, function, behavior, physiology, ecology)? 2) How do they develop (gene expression, cell biology, embryology morphogenesis)? and 3) How do they evolve (genetics, diversity, phylogeny)?
Program:  UNIT 2: Animal Biology

Animal Cells
The nucleus and the nucleolus. Chromatin organization.
Genetic information and its expression: replication, transcript, translation, genetic code
Cytoplasm: the relationship between the structure and function of the Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmatic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus.
Mitocondris and cellular oxidations.
Cellular cycle and the mitosis.
General morphofunctional characteristics and anatomical location of the epithelial covering and glandular tissues, support connectives and trophics, skeletal, cardiac, smooth and nervous muscle.

Organization of the animals and human body, anatomical position, section plans, corporal cavities. Locomotor apparatus: Skeleton and its functions; general notions articular systems classification; general notions of the skeletal muscles.
Integumentary apparatus: skin and attached cutaneous.
Cardiovascular apparatus: general characteristics of blood and lymphatic circulation heart structure and conformation, pericardium, arteries, veins, capillaries land ymphoide organs.
Digestive apparatus: organization of the food channel anatomy.
Urinary apparatus: kidneys organization and microscopic anatomy, urinary pathways organizations.
Genital apparatus: organization and anatomy of the gonads and the masculine and female genital pathways gametogenesis.
Endocrine system. Morphofuncional characteristic of endocrine glands
Nervous system: general organization of the CNS; general notions on nerves; brainstem and cranial nerves encefalici; cerebellum; diencephalon and cerebrum.
Survey of physiological systems that regulate levels of gases, food, energy, temperature, water, and ions. Examples from invertebrates and vertebrates
Animal development from fertilization through birth.
The functional anatomy and life cycles of the major invertebrate taxa are emphasized.
A comparative survey of vertebrates, focusing on their morphology, classification, and phylogeny.
Prerequisites:  Cell biology, chemistry and physics (basic knowledge) are prerequisite to all Biology courses
Preparatory instructions:  nothing
Learning materials:  Solomon, Berg, Martin. Biologia-Struttura e processi vitali negli animali. EdiSES 2006 Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller. Biologia-La biologia degli animali. Zanichelli 2001 Dorit, Walker, Barnes. Zoologia. Zanichelli. 1997. Hickman, Roberts, Larson, L’anson. Fondamenti di Zoologia McGraw-Hill 2005
Other info:  The slides are downlodable at Usr: anonymous
Pwd: anonymous

final exam made up to open writing test and (plus) oral test
Program of General Biology; unit 2: Animal Biology (pdf version)
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