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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Technology and microbiology of food processing: agricultural industries
Code: G240NB
Teacher:  Ivano De Noni
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 6
Basic aims:  It is the intent of the course to provide the student with the knowledge to be aware of the basic chemical, physical and biochemical phenomena occurring in milk and wine processing. The aim is also to address the student insight the specific aspects related to milk and wine production and processing in mountain areas.
Acquired skills:  At the end of the course the student will have acquired skill to apply knowledge (also from previous courses) on practical problems related to milk and wine production and transformation. He will be able to point out the factors more relevant to final quality of milk-derived food and wine produced in mountain areas.
Course contents:  The course focuses on the chemical, physical, and microbiological aspects of milk itself, and on the technological (processing) aspects of the transformation of milk into various consumer products, including consumption milk, fermented products, butter, cheese and dried milk. The programme also deals with the effects of various technologies on milk components characteristics related to quality and functionality of the final product. The course will deal with different technological processing schemes involved in manufacturing of wine and special wine. The course will discuss the issues more relevant to the production and transformation of milk and wine in mountain areas. The programme includes a day time for visit to dairy plant and winery.
Program:  MILK - Milk chemistry and microbiology – Factors affecting milk production and composition. Physical properties (acid-base equilibria, density, viscosity, freezing point). Functionality and structure of the most important components of milk (lactose, fat, caseins, whey proteins, enzymes and minerals) and their roles in dairy products. The effects of processing on the structure and functionality of milk constituents. Important micro-organisms in milk and dairy products and factors affecting their reproduction and survival. Control of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms during production and storage of dairy products. Dairy technology Consumption milk - Destruction of micro-organisms by heat treatment: thermisation, pasteurisation and sterilisation processes. Removal of micro-organisms by means of membrane filtration technologies. Cultured milk - Manufacture technology of yogurt and cultured milks. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria. Cultured milk as functional foods.Butter – Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the different types of cream. Industrial buttermaking processes. Technologies for production of anhydrous milk fat. Milk powders - Technologies for manufacture of milk powders. Powder agglomeration. Types and quality characteristics of milk powder. Cheese - Analysis of the cheesemaking steps including type of milk, rennet, cheese starters, processing within the vat and processing post-vat. Technologies for manufacture of different Italian cheeses and processed cheese. Physical and biochemical phenomena occurring during ripening.Quality control of dairy products including quality standards provided by either EU specifications or government regulations. WINE - Composition of grapes; changes of main grape components during maturation and the importance thereof for the fermentation process and wine quality. Criteria for determining harvest readiness. Grape and exogenous enzymes. Glycosidasic enzymes. Phenolic substances: anthocyans, flavanols, procyanidines, tannins. Polimerization and stabilization of colour. Oxidative pathway in must. The harvesting and handling of grapes, must and skins before, during and after fermentation. Taxonomy and ecology of grape and wine yeasts. Yeast oenological characteristics and condition for yeasts development. Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation and metabolic pathways of wine yeasts. Microbial spoilage of wines and applied aspects of moulds and lactic acid bacteria during winemaking. Malolactic fermentation. Use of sulphur dioxide in must and wine treatment. Products and methods complementing the effect of sulphur dioxide. Principles of winemaking including schemes of grape processing and special demands in individual technological practices: white, red, rose and sparkling wines, special wines and wines of special quality. Fining agents use optimization. Protein, tartrate, oxidative, colour and metal stability Principles and techniques for physicochemical and microbiological stabilization of wine. Enzymes in winemaking. Bottling. Wood barrel ageing.
Prerequisites:  Student must have the interest to profit from the programme and must be able to apply knowledge from previous basics skills courses.
Preparatory instructions:  Organic and inorganic chemistry, physics, biochemistry, microbiology.
Learning materials:  Handouts of PowerPoint slides and notes. Suggested books:1. C. ALAIS., Scienza del latte. Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 2000. 2. C. Corradini, Chimica e tecnologia del latte, Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 1995. 3 Ribereau-Gayon P et al.. Trattato di Enologia vol. 1 e 2. Edagricole, Bologna.
Other info:  The student will undergo a final written examination.
Program of Technology and microbiology of food processing: agricultural industries (pdf version)
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