Logo Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Università degli Studi di Milano foto
Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Università degli Studi di Milano
contatti    cerca    mappa   
Plant Pathology mod.1: Forest Entomology
Code: G240KA
Teacher:  Giuseppe Carlo Lozzia
Year: 
Term: 
CFU: 
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4
Practices in classroom: 1
Basic aims:  Knowledge of the forest ecosystem and of associated arthropod
coenosis. To learn the techniques of environmental management in
a perspective of sustainable development.
Acquired skills:  Knowledge of the dynamics and issues related to the arthropods
present in a forest environment
Course contents:  GENERAL PART
I. INTRODUCTION
II. INSECT BODY STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
III. THE LIFE OF INSECTS
IV. CONCEPTS OF CROP PROTECTION - INTEGRATED DEFENSE
V. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY

SPECIAL SECTION
A. HARMFUL INSECTS IN FORESTRY ENVIRONMENT
B. HARMFUL INSECTS IN MOUNTAIN FRUIT-GROWING
Program:  GENERAL PART
I. INTRODUCTION
- Introduction to the study of insects.
- Systematic position of insects. Differences between Insects
and other Arthropods. General characteristics of insects.

II. INSECT BODY STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
- Morphology of the head. Parts of the head and
appendages (antennae and mouthparts). Mouthparts:
chewingr; piercing, sucking (Rhynchota).
- Morphology of the thorax. Segments of the thorax.
Appendices: wings; legs.
- Morphology of the abdomen. Abdominal segments.
Appendages.
- Integumentary system. Integument and its structure.
Exoskeleton. Endoskeleton.
- Muscle and locomotion system.
- Digestive System. Constitution and structure of the
digestive tract. Physiology of digestion. Diets.
- Respiratory system. Constitution and structure of tracheal
system. Physiology of respiration.
- Circulatory system. Constitution and structure of
circulatory system. Hemolymph. Physiology of circulation.
- Nervous system. Neuron. Central nervous system (brain,
gnatocerebro, ventral ganglion chain). Visceral nervous system
(dorsal sympathetic, ventral sympathetic, cardio-aortic, caudal
sympathetic). Peripheral nervous system.
- Sense organs. Chemoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors.
Hygroreceptors. Phonoreceptors. Thermoreceptors.
Photoreceptors (simple eyes, compound eyes).
- Excretory system. Malpighian tubes. Nephrocytes. Adipose
tissue. Integument
- Secretory system. Glands of external secretion; wax, lac
and silk secreting glands, of defence and attack, connected to
the reproductive system, to pheromones
- Reproductive system. Male and female reproductive system.
Reproduction: amphigony; parthenogenesis. Fertility.

III. THE LIFE OF INSECTS
- Post-embryonic development. Mute. Metamorphosis:
heterometabolous; hemimetabolous; holometabolous. Post-
embryonic stages: nymphs, larvae, pupae.
- The adult insect. Emergence. Sexual dimorphism and
secondary sexual characteristics. Polymorphism.

IV. CONCEPTS OF CROP PROTECTION - INTEGRATED DEFENSE
- Population dynamics. Insect population evaluation methods.
Estimating a population. Growth patterns of insect populations.
Population fluctuations. Demographic tables. Analysis of key
factors.
- Biotic and abiotic adversity.
- Risk management. Habitat management, concept of agro-
ecosystem.
- Methods of control. Integrated pest management: changes to
the relationships between insects and climate, between insects
and plants, between insects and biotic communities. Protection
and importation of pest control agents; spread of pathogenic
microorganisms, genetic manipulation. Means of biotechnical
management. Mechanical management. Silvicultural criteria.
Insecticides and their mechanisms of action - formulas.
- IPM (integrated pest management).

V. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY
- Classification of woods. Forest ecology. Forest ecosystem.
Climate and edaphic factors. General notions on forest insects.
- Leaf litter. Cryptosphere. Organisms involved in the
process of humogenesis.
- Insects in the forest: the positive and negative effects.
Relationships between insects and plants (tritrophic
relationships). Influence of biotic and abiotic factors.
- Damage caused by insects to forests. Predisposition of
forest and resistance to phytophages.

SPECIAL SECTION
Recognition, morphological and biological characteristics of the
Insect Orders, Families and Species listed below.

A. HARMFUL INSECTS IN FORESTRY ENVIRONMENT
FITOMIZI
Aphidoidea
- Adelgidae: Sacchiphantes viridis, S. abietis,
Adelges laricis, Gilletteella cooleyi, Pineus pini, P. cembrae,
Dreyfusia nordmannianae
Coccoidea
- Cryptococcidae: Cryptococcus fagisuga
DEFOLIATORS
Lepidoptera
- Coleophoridae: Coleophora griseana
- Tortricidae: Zeiraphera diniana,
- Thaumetopoeidae: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, T.
processionea
- Lymantriidae: Lymantria dispar
GALLIGENIC
Diptera
- Cecidomyiidae: Mikiola fagi
Hymenoptera
- Cynipidae: Cynips spp., Dryocosmus kuriphilus
SEED INSECTS
Lepidoptera
- Tortricidae: Cydia splendana
XYLOPHAGES
Coleoptera
- Lyctidae: Lyctus brunneus
- Cerambycidae: Hylotrupes bajulus,
- Scolytidae: Tomicus minor, , Scolytus
multistriatus, S. sulcifrons, , Ips typographus, I. sexdentatus, I.
acuminatus

B. HARMFUL INSECTS IN MOUNTAIN FRUIT-GROWING
Drupaceae:
Myzus persicae, Cydia molesta and Anarsia lineatella.
Pomaceae:
Dysaphis plantaginea, Eriosoma lanigerum, Lithocolletis
blancardella, Leucoptera malifolliella,Sesia apiformis, Cydia
pomonella, Anisandrus dispar.
Vine:
Lobesia botrana, Eupoecilia ambiguella, Empoasca vitis,
Scaphoideus titanus.
Minor species:
Gonocerus acuteangulatus, Curculio nucum ( hazelnut); Cydia
splendana, Curculio elephas, Dryocosmus kuriphilus ( chestnut
); Rhagoletis completa (walnut); Byturus tomentosus,
Drosophila suzukii (raspberry, blueberry).
Prerequisites:  The student must have some knowledge regarding the main
botanical and cultivation aspects of cultivated species and the most
common forest trees in our environment.
Preparatory instructions:  Animal Biology, Botany, Selvicolture and Forest Management
Learning materials:  J.F. Abgrall, A. Soutrenon – La forêt et son ennemis. Cemagref,
Grenoble.
AA. VV. – Manuale diZoologia agraria. Antonio Delfino Editore.
A. Battisti et al. Lineamenti di zoologia forestale. Padova
University Press.
P. Baronio, N. Baldassari. Insetti dannosi ai boschi di conifere.
Edagricole editore
R.G. Davies – Lineamenti di Entomologia. Zanichelli.
R. Dajoz - Ecologie des insectes forestiers. Gaulthier-Villars.

ICONOGRAPHIC SOURCES
http://www.forestryimages.org
http://www.leps.it/indexjs.htm
Other info:  Assessment will consist in an oral exam consisting in a general
question related to general entomology, followed by one or more
questions regarding population dynamics, defense and
management of forest ecosystems
DOWNLOAD
Program of Plant Pathology mod.1: Forest Entomology (pdf version)
back
  The Faculty
  How to reach us
  Undergraduate programmes
  Courses
  Teaching organization
  LLP/Erasmus for incoming students
  Contacts
Università degli Studi di Milano