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Soil Science mod.1: Soil Chemistry
Code: G2406A
Teacher:  Giuliana D'imporzano
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4
Practices in classroom: 1
Basic aims:  supply basic knowlege to understand the role of soil in plant nutrition and environmental protection, especially in alpin environment
Acquired skills:  Students will be supplied elements to understand the role of soil in environmental protection and to identify different sink in soil: mineral compartment and organic one. These compartment are both essential for soil functio. Soil genesis will be treated dealing with actual soil features. Chemical paramethers such as pH, redox, density, structure, etc..will be investigated in order to be able to understand soil routin analysis
Course contents:  INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOIL. Soil structure CATION EXCHANGE. ANION ADSORPTION. The pH and soil reaction. Acid soil. Alkaline soils and sodium. REDOX POTENTIAL Biogeochemical cycles Laboratory exercises
Program:  inorganic soil constituent wheathering reactions. mobility of ions in soil The phyllosilicates in the soil. Isomorphous replacement. Charge layer. Variable charge. Oxides. Carbonates Sulphates Concept of colloid and colloidal dispersion, dispersion and flocculation of clays Organic constituents of soil. The carbon cycle. Nature and origin of organic matter. Non Humus fraction: Features. Humus fraction: features Mineralization processes. Humification processes. Theories of the formation of humic substances. Extraction and fractionation of humic substances. Properties and effects of organic matter in soil. Soil as carbon sink Features physical, chemical, biological and environmental aspects of organic matter. Soil structure Aggregate Cements Effects of structure on the stability of the soil Soil physical properties Water / air ratio (maximum water capacity, field capacity) CATION EXCHANGE. Exchangers Exchange capacity. Terms of exchange, reversibility of the process. Models of double layer: Helmholtz, Gouy and Chapman, Stern. Affinity of the cation exchanger. Charge and energy of hydration lyotropic series. ANION ADSORPTION. Physical and chemical adsorption. Anion specific adsorption or chemisorption. Determination of phosphate. The pH and soil reaction. Chemical equilibrium Forms of acidity. (Current and potential) The buffering capacity of soils (reactions involved). Nutrient availability as a function of pH. Acid soil. Causes and factors of soil acidification. Nature of soil acidity. aluminum ion distribution curves as a function of pH. Adverse effect of Al ion and acidity on soil properties Correction of acid soils. . The alkaline soils and sodium. Salty soils, sodic and saline-sodic. Properties and characteristics. Correction REDOX POTENTIAL Submerged soils. Types, chemical processes and conditions Biogeochemical cycles NITROGEN Functions Sub soil Reactions Availability, C / N ratio Phosphorus Functions Sub soil Reactions POTASSIUM Functions Sub soil Reactions IRON Functions Sub soil Reactions S Erosion Laboratory exercises Sample preparation Determination of texture Determination of pH (in water and KCl) Try the flocculation of clays Determination of total carbon Extraction and fractionation of humic substances. Field capacity
Prerequisites:  basic knowledge of chemistry and vegetal biology
Preparatory instructions:  inorganic chemistry
Learning materials:  lessons resume "CHIMICA DEL TERRENO" RADAELLI,
Other info:  written exam
Program of Soil Science mod.1: Soil Chemistry (pdf version)
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