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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Dairy chemistry and technology
Code: G-02A-
Teacher:  Luisa Maria Pellegrino
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4
Basic aims:  This course is intended to provide the students with the current knowledge of milk constituents and their properties. On this basis, critical understanding of the chemical and physical changes that occur in dairy products before, during, and after processing will be achieved.
Acquired skills:  Scientific knowledge of principles and practices fundamental to modern dairy technology will unable students critically to evaluate quality and suitability of both raw materials and finished dairy products. Technical activity in operating dairy plants will be easily undertaken.
Course contents:  This course focuses on the dairy sector because of its primary role in the agriculture and food industry in Northen Italy. The course presents a background of organization and policy of the dairy sector in Italy and within EU. Dairy chemistry and physics. Composition, structure, and physical properties of the main milk constituents (lactose, lipids, casein, whey proteins, minerals). Main factors affecting milk stability and changes occurring in milk during processing. Science and technology aspects that support the manufacture of main classes of dairy products (i.e. fluid milk, cheese, butter, milk powder). Legislation and related quality control issues in dairy products. Technical visits to local dairy plants are scheduled.
Program:  Introductory overview of the dairy sector within the European Union, including production trends, milk supply and demand situation, trade problems and policy. Dairy chemistry and physics. Composition and structure: main factors that can affect milk composition (breed, herd, herd management and feeding, season, location). Structure and physical behaviour of milk constituents. Physical properties of milk. Lactose and microbial fermentation processes in dairy products. Milk proteins. Casein micelles, acid and rennet coagulation. Whey proteins, heat denaturation, technological interest. Lipids. Structure and behaviour of fat globules, lipolysis and fat oxidation. Minerals and bioactive constituents: technological role and nutritional impact. Dairy technology. Heat treatments of milk intended for direct consumption or destined to further processing. Membrane processing. Cheesemaking, traditional and innovative processes. Buttermaking by batch or continuous processes and using different types of cream. Dried milk products. Dairy byproducts and effluents. Quality control and fraud detection in dairy products. Italian and EU legislation in dairy sector.
Prerequisites:  None
Preparatory instructions:  Introductory organic chemistry and biochemistry, microbiology.
Learning materials:  Students will have resumes of the lessons. Reference books: C. Corradini. CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA DEL LATTE Ed. Tecniche Nuove (1995) O. Salvadori del Prato. TRATTATO DI TECNOLOGIA CASEARIA Ed. Edagricole (1993) V. Bottazzi. MICROBIOLOGIA LATTIERO-CASEARIA Ed. Edagricole (1993) C. Alais SCIENCE DU LAIT Ed. SEPAIC (2000)P.Walstra e Jenness DAIRY TECHNOLOGY Ed. Marcel Dekker (1999)
Other info:  Oral examination
Program of Dairy chemistry and technology (pdf version)
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