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Facoltā di Scienze Agrarie e Alimentari Universitā degli Studi di Milano
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Chilled and frozen food technology
Code: G-01U-
Teacher:  Cristina Alamprese
CFU subdivision: Lectures: 4
Basic aims:  The aim of the course is to provide students with the fundamental principles and methods for low-temperature food storage. The main systems and equipments used for chilled/frozen food production and storage will be discussed, as well as the major quality attributes of raw materials and chilled/frozen foods.
Acquired skills:  At the end of the course and after the final exam, the student will be able to:
- Write technical sheets for raw materials and chilled/frozen foods.
- Plan and optimize frozen food and ice cream composition and processing parameters in order to assure product safety and quality.
- Organize and manage the cold chain to guarantee chilled and frozen food quality.
- Co-operate to the development of new products and to the improvement of production process.
Course contents:  Refrigeration and storage of fresh vegetables and fruits. Refrigeration cycle and equipments. Fundamentals of freezing. Quick frozen food legislation. Facilities for the cold chain. Freezing methods and equipments. Production processing: minimally processed fruits and vegetables, frozen fruits and vegetables, frozen fish and related products, ice cream.
Program:  Refrigeration:
Methods and equipments for pre-refrigeration and storage of fresh vegetables and fruits, with or without modified atmosphere. Minimally processed refrigerated fruits and vegetables: production process and quality attributes.
Refrigeration cycle and equipments:
Pressure-enthalpy diagram. The ideal and the real vapour-compression cycle. Properties and environmental impact of refrigerants. Components of a vapour-compression refrigeration system: compressors, condensers, expansion valves, and evaporators. Household refrigerators and freezers.
Fundamentals of freezing:
Ice formation kinetic. Freezing curves of pure water, solutions, and foods. Physical and chemical changes during freezing and frozen storage in plant and animal tissues. Thawing kinetic.
Quick-frozen foods:
Quick frozen foodstuff legislation. Facilities for the cold chain.
Freezing methods and equipments:
Air convection freezing: heat transfer coefficient, weight loss, defrost systems. Air blast, fluidized bed, and impingement freezers. Contact freezing: plate, drum, and belt systems. Liquid immersion and cryogenic freezing: principles and equipments. Freezing process selection criteria (costs, yield, product quality).
Production processing:
Frozen fruit and vegetable production: quality attributes and processing lines.
Production of frozen fish, shellfish, and related products: quality and safety attributes, processing lines.
Artisanal and industrial ice cream production: ingredient functionalities, processing lines, quality attributes.
Prerequisites:  Students should have the basic notions of Microbiology and Unit Processing Operations.
Preparatory instructions:  None
Learning materials:  Lecture slides and notes.
Other info:  A written examination is mandatory, with three open questions to be answered in 2 hours.
Suggested books:
- G. Crivelli, La surgelazione dei prodotti ortofrutticoli, Edagricole, Bologna, 1993.
- C.P. Mallet, Frozen Food Technology, Blackie Academic & Professional, Londra, 1993.
-Singh R.P., Heldmann D.R. Food Freezing (Ch. 7) in "Introduction to Food Engineering", Elsevier, 2009.
-C. Alamprese, E. Casiraghi "Appunti del corso di Tecnologia delle Applicazioni Frigorifere" (2nd ed.) Milano, CUSL, 2017.
Program of Chilled and frozen food technology (pdf version)
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